Wednesday, 12 August 2015
San Giacomo Scossacavalli (also San Giacomo a Scossacavalli) was a church in Rome, vital for historical and creative reasons. The church, facing the square Scossacavalli, was razed in 1937, once Via della Conciliazione (the grand avenue resulting in St. Peter's Basilica) was erected, inflicting the destruction of the square at the side of the central a part of the rione Borgo.
|Church of San Giacomo Scossacavalli|
Chiesa di San Giacomo Scossacavalli
|Geographic coordinates||N 12°27′41.80″E|
|Year consecrated||Before 8th century;|
23 November 1777
|Ecclesiastical or organizational status||Parish (1275–1825)|
|Status||Destroyed in 1937|
|Architect(s)||Antonio da Sangallo the Younger|
|Architectural style||Renaissance, Mannerist|
|Direction of façade||West|
The shrine was settled in Rome, in rione Borgo, on the side of square Scossacavalli, its main front facing west and opposite to the Palazzo dei Convertendi. Its southern facet ran on the Borgo Vecchio road.
The church's name gave birth to a pious legend. once capital of Montana, the mother of Constantine the nice came back from her trip to the Palestine, she brought back among alternative relics 2 stones: the one wherever Saviour was introduced to King king in his temple, which wherever Abraham sure patriarch. The Empress wished to give each stones to Saint Peter's Basilica however, once the convoy arrived in correspondence of the place wherever the long run church would stand, the horses (Italian: cavalli) refused to maneuver additional, though they were being jolted (Italian: scossi) many times.thereon place, a chapel was engineered, that hosted the 2 stones, and gave origin to the church. The story has no foundation, the foremost probable reason for the name being the finding close to the sq. of a fraction of Associate in Nursing Equestrian sculpture of Roman Age representing a horse thigh, in Low Latin enarthrodial joint Caballi.
The church had Associate in Nursing ancient origin: within the Middle Ages, it had been 1st dedicated to the Redeemer (Italian: Salvatore), and was mentioned as San Salvatoris DE enarthrodial joint Caballi in pontifical Bulls of Popes Sergius I (r. 687–701) and Leo IV (r. 847-55).
According to some sources, the church may be known with San Salvatore DE Bordonia, wherever a bordone was the workers borne by the pilgrims returning to St. Peter. These would have left their staffs in San Giacomo before coming into saint, precisely as they did when finishing the manner of St. James, and this reality would make a case for conjointly the late dedication to James.
In 1250 the relics of St. James were delivered to the church, that modified its dedication correspondingly. Its usual denomination within the coeval documents is S. Jacobus DE porch, wherever the Porticus for antonomasia in medieval Rome was the coated passage linking saint with the Tevere, named Porticus Sancti Petri. In 1198 Pope Innocent III (r. 1198–1216) entrusted the Chapter of saint (Italian: Capitolo di San Pietro) with the church's care.In 1275 the church became parish.
In 1520 the confraternity of the blessed religious ceremony (Italian: Confraternita del Santissimo Sacramento) was entrusted with the care of the church. This association was born in Borgo in 1509 owing to the subsequent episode: on a windy evening of 1506, a Carmelite returning from the previous Santa Maria in Traspontina church (lying close to Castel Sant'Angelo), followed by a lay brother bearing a candle, was delivery the religious ceremony bread to a sufferer. Since the wind had place the candle out, the common person went into a close-by search posing for fireplace, so the priest was left alone. At the sight of the lone priest bearing the blessed religious ceremony, many passers-by were affected, gathered around him and accompanied him, bearing a canopy and torches. The cluster grew with time, till on three Sep 1509 the members fashioned a compagnia. The Carmelites appointed thereto a chapel in Santa Maria in Traspontina, and in 1513 Pope Catholic Pope (r. 1513–21) acknowledged the association, that in 1520 affected to San Giacomo, entrusted thereto by the Capitolo di San Pietro.
The brethren wore a sort of sackclothes (Italian: sacchi) created with white cloth. These had alittle figure on the left shoulder, representing a vermilion goblet with a picture of Christ. The confraternity was committed to offer a doctor and a barber to the poor living within the parish, and every Holy Thursday it organized within the church a illustration of the dead Christ with wax sculptures.every year, there was a solemn procession, 1st to Santa Maria Sopra Minerva in rione Pigna, later to the missionary Chapel within the Apostolic Palace and eventually to St. Peter. In 1578 Pope Roman Catholic Pope (r. 1572–85) accorded the association the standing of archconfraternity. as a result of that, duties and privilegies of the association grew: since 1580 the brothers endowed every year four poor ladies of the parish with a white dress and twenty-five scudi. In 1590 Pope Sixtus V (r.1585–90) granted to the archconfraternity the privilege of setting free every year someone condemned to death.
Shortly when their assignment to San Giacomo, the brethren began to reconstruct it, selecting as designer Antonio DA Sangallo the Younger, however as a result of lack of cash in 1590 the facade was still unfinished. in this year Ludovico Fulgineo, Apostolic Referendary and Governor of the archconfraternity died, deed his inheritance to the association. due to his heritage 2 years later the development can be finished.
In 1601 Associate in Nursing address dedicated to San Sebastiano was erected behind the church, its facade facing Borgo vecchio.
Baroque and trendy Ages
San Giacomo underwent thorough restorations throughout the primary 1/2 the seventeenth century and also the last half of eighteenth century. On twenty three Gregorian calendar month 1777 the church was consecrated once more by Cardinal Henry Benedict Stuart.
The church was broken throughout the French occupation of Rome below Napoleon, and rehabilitated once more in 1810 and 1880, once all the stone socles were removed. In 1825 San Giacomo lost its standing of parish. In 1927 the shrine was hit by a hearth that broken many artworks, and in 1929 it absolutely was appointed to the non secular institute of the Sons of Divine Providence.
In 1937 the building was destroyed (terminus ante quem for the tip of the works is thirty September 1937), within the context of the works for the development of Via della Conciliazione. whereas all the artworks got into custody initial to the Capitolo di San Pietro, then to the Museo Petriano, some frescoes decorating a chapel are detached and square measure on show at the Museo di Roma.Some components of the facade, enclosed the 17th-century travertino portal adorned with cherubs heads, square measure unbroken within the communal depot at the Bastione Ardeatino. the 2 alleged stones of the sacrifice of Isaac and of the presentation of the Nazarene to the Temple of Solomon are removed, and at the start of the Nineties are placed within the church of the Santi Michele e Magno (the national church of the Dutch in Rome) in Borgo: the latter is currently used because the main altar of this church.
The creative importance of the church derives primarily from its style by Antonio prosecuting attorney Sangallo the Younger and from its frescoes and paintings, specifically those by Piemontese mannerist painter Giovanni Battista Ricci and his students.
When Antonio DA Sangallo was commissioned to build the church, the most drawback he had to deal with was associated with the form of the building: the breadth of the church, facing public square Scossacavalli was longer than its length, placed on Borgo Vecchio. many drawings unbroken within the Uffizi show completely different solutions to the current problem: a single-nave set up familiarised on the long facet with a exterior door, Associate in Nursing polygon set up, Associate in Nursingd an oval set up. The latter was adopted by Giacomo Barozzi DA Vignola for the church of Sant'Anna dei Palafrenieri, and have become very fashionable throughout the seventeenth century. Sangallo didn't adopt any of those plans, instead deciding to scale back the world of the church, whose set up became a parallelogram with its long facet traditional to public square Scossacavalli. The area was flanked by four massive niches, and from the remaining area the designer obtained four rooms, 2 for every facet, used as room.
The appearance of the church towards the center of sixteenth century (shortly before its completion) is understood from a woodcut of Girolamo Franzini. The facade of the church seems as nearly sq. – at its center there was a portal with a tympanum head by an oversized fanlight opened by a fenestra rotunda. At its facet lay 3 rows of pilasters with 2 pairs of niches placed one on the highest of the opposite. On one facet of the roof there was a bell-gable.
When the facade was completed, at the pilasters' base were additional high plinths, and a second order was additional.This consisted in a very tympanum having at the middle an oversized panel adorned with frescoes and delimited by a mixtilinear frame. At the slopes' edges lay 2 candelabra, and at the bottom of the second order, 2 Oriflammes. of these parts gave to the facade, that since 1592 bore conjointly the coats of arms of Pope Clement VIII (r. 1592–1605) and of the confraternity, Associate in Nursing upward swing. what is more, the facade was adorned with frescoes of sacred subject: among them, "faked figures of yellow Saints product of golden metal" attributed to Giovanni Guerra or Cristoforo Ambrogini.
The church, while not apsis and construction, maintained the first single area set up a minimum of till 1627. In 1662 the naves had become 3, separated by 2 rows of sq. pillars created with masonry and head by vaults.In 1627 the shrine had 5 altars, increasing to 6 in 1649. In 1726, the closing of the church's facet gate on Borgo Vecchio created space for an additional altar.
The first chapel was dedicated to The Virgin Mary: on the vault were painted four doctors of the church (Ambrose, Jerome, theologiser and Gregory the Great), whereas the walls were adorned with frescoes by Cristoforo Ambrogini (or Ambrogi). what is more, there have been many frescoes portrayal episodes of the lifetime of The Virgin. These, attributed to a late mannerist creative person of Emilian college, are detached in 1937 and presently square measure on show at the Museo di Roma
The second chapel was dedicated to San Biagio.
The third chapel was dedicated to the Nativity of Hebrew. it absolutely was named conjointly "of the circumcision", due to a painting of Giovanni Battista Ricci, nicknamed once his birthplace il Novara, representing the Circumcision of Hebrew. This chapel was conjointly referred to as "chapel of the stone", with relation to the alleged stone over that Hebrew had been bestowed at the Temple in national capital, kept here. once the demolition of the church, this stone, beside that of the sacrifice of patriarch has been affected to the close church of the Santi Michele e Magno. higher than the altar lay Associate in Nursing oil painting portrayal the Presentation of Hebrew at the Temple, of a scholar of Ricci.
On all-time low wall of the correct area there was a 16th-century fresco portrayal the Pietà among a Choir of Angels.
On the left side:
The first chapel was dedicated to the Nativity of Jewess.Since 1573, this chapel was giuspatronato of the noble metropolis Carcano family, and hosted the alleged stone of the sacrifice of patriarch. On its altar there was on show a painting of Giovanni Battista Ricci representing the birth of The Virgin Mary; on the vault, the four evangelists, on the walls many frescoes.
The second chapel was dedicated to San Giacomo and had higher than the altar a sculpture of the saint, later replaced by a painting with constant subject. This chapel was the burial place of the members of the confraternity of the SS. Sacramento.
The third chapel was dedicated to the crucifix, and hosted an oversized sculpture representing Christ on the Cross.
Above the most altar, dedicated to Hebrew the Redeemer, there was a painting of Giovanni Battista Ricci representing the Last Supper. Moreover, in 1662 a detached fresco depiction The Virgin large was transferred there. The Cardinals Ardicini had this image painted on the facade of their palace in Borgo Sant'Angelo. This image was extremely commemorated by the folks of Borgo due to the numerous miracles attributed to her intercession.On the altar lay a tabernacle created with African marble, work of Giovanni Battista Ciolli.
The church was the burial places of many folks, whose tombstones adorned the floor: among them, the son and also the female parent of Pirro Ligorio and Battista Gerosa, son of Antonio, the designer of the speech of San Sebastiano.